Area 14,000 square miles
Climate Maritime Subtropical
Natural Resources Small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos
Capital Taipei
Population 23.4 million
(2014 est)
Education 9 years compulsory
Literacy 96.1%
Time Zone GMT +8
Currency New Taiwan Dollar (NT$)
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Official Republic of China Dating System
In Taiwan, official documents use the 1911 founding of the Republic of China as a reference point in establishing the date. Thus the year 2011 is actually year 100, i.e. the 100th year since the founding of the republic. The date is written as year/month/day, so October 20, 2011 is written 100/10/20.
Holidays
Taiwan’s holidays can be divided into festivals associated with the traditional lunar calendar and holidays that are celebrated according to the solar calendar. Prior to the introduction of the solar calendar system from the West, China followed a lunar calendar in determining the times of planting, harvesting, and festival occasions. Today, the people in Taiwan use the solar calendar, but the old system still serves as the basis for determining some holidays. Since a lunar month is shorter than a solar month, the two calendars do not match up. Therefore, the Chinese add an extra month every 30 months to the lunar calendar. Thus, the Chinese Lunar New Year can fall anywhere between January 21 and February 28 on the solar calendar.

Below is a list of the holidays and festivals in Taiwan.
Solar Calendar Holidays
Founding Day   January 1
Peace Memorial Day February 28
Women’s Day March 8
Youth Day March 29
Children's Day April 4
Armed Forces Day September 3
Teachers' Day/Confucius' Birthday September 28
Double Tenth/National Day October 10
Retrocession Day October 25
Constitution Day December 25
 
Lunar Calendar Holidays
Chinese New Year (Year of the Horse) January 31, 2014
Lantern Festival February 14, 2014
Tomb-Sweeping Day April 5, 2014
Dragon Boat Festival June 2, 2014
Mid-Autumn Festival September 8, 2014
Double Ninth Day ("Senior Citizen's Day") October 2, 2014
Sources
Taiwan Government Information
Directorate-General of Personnel Administration, Executive Yuan
Taiwan Stock Exchange Trading Holidays